This experiment at Homeacres is in the same vein as the one I ran from 2007-2012 at Lower Farm. Its to compare growth of the same vegetables in a dug bed and a no dig bed, all harvests recorded.
Ten year’s yields from 2007-16 are 759.23kg (1674lb) from the dug beds, and 802.80kg (1770lb) of same plantings from the undug beds, at Lower Farm then Homeacres.
Yields from the two Homeacres beds in the four years 2013-16 are 382.99kg dug bed and 399.13kg undug bed.
Preparing the two beds for 2017, in December 2016
See this video of spreading compost on the no dig bed, it’s a quick job. By comparison the digging of the other bed took longer!
On 13th March 2017, after some unusually mild weather with day maxima averaging 12C/54F, we sowed and planted both beds, with the same veg as last March, see below. The planting pattern is a mirror image of 2016, for a rotation of sorts, for example lettuce and potatoes swapped ends.
On 30th March, Steph and I removed the fleece covers, just for an hour, to check on growth. It was similar between both beds but a huge difference was the high number of weeds germinating on the dug bed, and very few on the no dig.
Growth through spring was steady, in temperatures mostly above average, with a last frost on 27th April of -2C/28F. Normally we have a frost mid May but not this year and May was almost the warmest ever, especially by night.
There were strange differences with spinach, beetroot and onions struggling on the dug bed, while healthy on no dig. At the other end, peas and potatoes grew larger on the dug bed, harvests still to come. The images below are 1st June 2017, harvests to that date of 11.5kg dug, 15.1kg no dig:
By mid July, all first plantings are harvested, except for onions (soon) and parsnips. It’s a vintage year for onions here, with plenty of dry weather.
There were more potatoes and peas from the dug bed. Legumes generally yield a little more from tilled soil, while potatoes vary each year: in 2017 it was 11.07kg dug and 8.56kg no dig. Total harvests to 13th July are 37.65kg dug and 41.16kg no dig.
The beds are now planted with beetroot, French bean, kale, cucumber, radicchio and celery. Plus I sowed carrots between the lettuce and they are five weeks old already.
By mid August the onions are dry enough to weigh: there were 12.02kg/26.5lb on no dig and 11.9kg on dug, my best ever yield from that space of 11.5 sq.ft/1.08 sq.m. This adds to the spring onions we harvested from thinnings in late May.
The plantings we did on the day course of July 1st – chicory, celery and golden beetroot, small plants – have grown fantastically in just six weeks and there are almost hearts of radicchio already.
Harvests of first plantings were 48kg dug and 53 kg no dig. Since then we are picking cucumber, French beans and beetroot, of the second plantings.
Preparing the two beds for 2016, in December 2015
First sowings and plantings on March 14th, 2016 of carrot, parsnip (both sown direct) and spinach, onion, broad bean put in as plants
By March 21st, the beds are planted and sown, then fleeced over as its still cool with some frost and cold winds.
Now its wait and see what grows.
We finally removed the fleece covers on May 3rd and then growth took off in the new warmth, what a joy. By mid July, each bed has given just over 40kg of harvests with the dug bed slightly ahead thanks to higher harvests of lettuce, peas and potatoes, while no dig is ahead on carrots, cabbage and spinach.
Harvests and new plantings up to early August
Many summer harvests have finished, so there are now carrots growing where the lettuce were, endives after onion/shallot, kale and cabbage after beetroot, cucumber after spinach, French bean after cabbage and swede/kohlrabi after potatoes.
Harvest to August 4th are 51.0kg from the dug bed, 50.4kg from undug, of usable produce.
Autumn harvests were higher on no dig. It was a dry period and perhaps this reflects better moisture availability, from the higher numbers of mycorrhizal fungi.
Plus there was more canker on the dug bed’s parsnips, and more rotting of it’s swedes. Kale intrigued me too, the plants always looking more lush on no dig. During a gale in October, the kale on dug leaned over, those on no dig stood upright.
Table of 2016 harvests
|Lettuce, April to July||13.61||13.06|
|Coriander, dill interplant, April to May||0.30||0.30|
|Onion from own seed, July||2.57||3.35|
|Beetroot Boltardy, June||2.92||2.95|
|Spinach, May to June||4.08||4.34|
|Broad bean dwarf variety, July||2.87||3.27|
|Peas, June to July||5.29||4.78|
|Cabbages, hearts in June||4.84||5.06|
|Potato, first earlies, June||6.51||5.86|
|Summer sowings and plantings|
|Carrots sown between lettuce, Sept-Oct||13.46||12.94|
|Endive, after shallot & onion, August to October||7.26||7.87|
|Cucumber after carrot, got downy mildew (not powdery)||0.71||1.57|
|Kale after beetroot, September to November||5.03||7.89|
|Cabbage after beetroot, October||2.51||2.15|
|Beetroot after cabbage, November||6.14||6.85|
|French bean after cabbage, July to September||2.80||3.93|
|Parsnips, October to November||9.93||10.99|
|Swede and kohlrabi after potato, November||2.69||6.30|
|Mispoona, parsley after cucumber, October to November||0.95||0.97|
|TOTALS 2016||99.58 dug||109.57 no dig|
Preparing the two beds for 2015
Through March I plant and sow, the same vegetables as last year, in different places.
I removed fleece off both beds on April 12th. Growth is steady on both beds: broad beans look stronger on the dug bed while lettuce, spinach and radish are bigger on the undug bed. There have been many more weeds to hoe and pull on the dug bed!
I harvested some spinach and the radish in mid April, then we took a first pick of lettuce on April 21st, see the before and after photos, the yield was 880g of leaves from the dug bed and 1400g from the undug bed, whose leaves were noticeably firmer and larger.
In May the growth has been steady on both beds, nice weather. Cabbage look better on dug, potatoes look better on undug, as do spinach and lettuce, see photos below. Harvests to May 27th of spinach are 2.8kg dug, 3.1kg undug and of lettuce are 5.4kg dug, 7.1kg undug.
August update Both beds are now replanted with vegetables for summer, autumn and winter harvests, see table below. Already I have harvested some cucumbers (Tanya) which I planted after the lovely harvest of cabbage hearts in early June. We just laid mesh over the carrots, against root fly. French beans and the second planting of beetroot started cropping in mid August, photos are at that time.
December 3rd, final harvests are
|Coriander, dill (9 plants) planted 25.3||0.56||0.58|
|Carrots Early Nantes sown 17.3||1.62||1.25|
|Cabbage Golden Acre (5) planted 25.3 (then cucumber planted 11.6)||6.23||6.61|
|Potato Swift (5) planted 22.3 (then French beans planted 22.6)||3.55||4.48|
|Beetroot (8×4) planted 22.3 (then fennel planted 19.7)||5.28||4.94|
|Spinach Butterflay (8) planted 17.3 (then swede planted 6.6)||4.04||4.43|
|Lettuce (mixed, 24 plants) planted 17.3 (intersown with carrots 6th June)||10.64||
|Broad bean (then Palla Rossa chicory planted 13.7)||8.71||
|Shallot (then beetroot planted 20.6, 8 plants x 3-4, multisown modules))||2.51||
|Onion (then Cavalo Nero kale planted 24.6, 5 plants each bed)||4.65||
|Cucumber, planted late June after cabbage||4.03||
|Dwarf beans, planted late June after potato||2.26||
|Beetroot planted late June after shallots||7.37||
|Radicchio (chicory) planted July after broad beans||2.24||
|Fennel Perfektion planted July after beetroot||0.79||
|Carrot sown 6th June between lettuce||8.00||
|Kale Black Cabbage interplant 24.6 between onions||7.42||
|Leaf radish after radicchio, planted 2.9||1.78||
Again the pattern is of small, interesting differences, and broadly similar growth. Autumn carrots were amazingly different in favour of undug, also with more slug damage to the dug carrots.
Starting out in 2013
I made two large beds, five feet wide and sixteen feet long (1.5x5m), the same area as Lower Farm’s experiment, and used old oak planks from a tree at Lower Farm which I had had to cut down in 2003, as it was dying.
The planks are ten inches (25cm) wide so the beds are deeper than before, and more level thanks to the lack of slope at Homeacres.
These figures are after the FINAL HARVESTS on December 4th.
Excellent quality through October and November of celery, fennel, endive and beetroot, in the mild weather: look at the productivity of endive, from just 14 plants on each bed, planted after the magnificent onion harvest, picked every ten days of outer leaves, with harvests from 2nd September to 29th November.
I have not added the cucumber harvest to the main totals because it would distort the figures: there was a vole in the dug bed which ate the cucumber plant!
|Vegetable||Dug Beds kg||Undug Beds kg|
|Lettuce Leaves *||8.32||9.85|
|Beetroot (April planting)||2.58||3.02|
|Onion Red Baron||4.38||4.69|
|Beetroot (June planting) **||4.34||4.66|
|French Bean **||1.64||1.74|
|Endive Leaves **||5.65||4.69|
|Totals for season||81.82||83.24|
* 22 plants on each bed, picked every week from May 13th to July 23rd
** 2nd planting
*** I have not added the cucumber harvest to the main totals because it would distort the figures: there was a vole in the dug bed which ate the cucumber plant!
The experiment in 2014
Before and after digging and composting, December ’13.
Bed on left dug with 3 barrows homemade compost in the trenches. The same amount of compost has been spread on right-hand, undug bed. In this case the compost is lighter colour than the soil on left, which also has some of last year’s cow manure on the surface, brought up in digging. Soil is more crumbly that at Lower Farm, loam over the clay below.
How I dug the ‘dug bed’, wheelbarrow top right has soil from the first trench, to go in the last trench. Photo on right is a first sowing on December 8th of Aquadulce broad beans, which were then dibbed in. A foot to their right I intend planting another row of Aquadulce which I soed in modules in November, in the greenhouse.
In early March I spread a three quarter bucket of SEER rockdust on one side of each bed, to see what differences it makes
Also in early March, with fine weather bringing plants on fast, I filled the beds with onion, shallot, beetroot, cabbage, lettuce and spinach plants, also I sowed carrot, parsnip and planted potato Swift. So by March 9th the beds are full, and fleeced over.
Module raised plants from the greenhouse, not hardened off as they are covered immediately with fleece, they include lettuce, cabbage, beetroot and onion (small, on right), and the right hand photo is both beds planted and ready to fleece over on March 9th.
Sowings and plantings 2014 with spacings between rows
8cm Garlic own bulbs, cloves planted 26.10, harvest 20 June
11cm Onion Sturon (7) v small sown 19.2
12cm Onion Red Baron Moles (8) again v small, sown 19.2
12cm Shallot Zebrune POD (5) sown 14.1 and 3 own Red Sun from 2013, harvest early July
10cm 8.3 Carrot E Nantes Milan + radish Cherry Bell – eaten by slugs, replaced by celeriac Prinz 28.5
13cm Beetroot Boltardy (7) SH sown 14.1 – harvested late May to late June
14cm Cabbage Greyhound (5) sown 14.1 – harvested early June to mid June
15cm Lettuce 4 Maravilla, 4 Relay
9cm Lettuce Red Cos POD (8)
9cm Lettuce 4 Eibacher Fels SH, 4 Mottistone – all lettuce harvested weekly, late April to
15cm 8.3 Parsnip Gladiator POD + radish Cherry Bell
14cm 8.3 Potato Swift 5 plants per bed – harvested late May to early June
15cm Spinach (8) Mississippi Moles, 1 or 2/module – harvested mid May to late June
15cm B Bean Aquadulce plants sown November- harvested late May to mid June
12cm Same but sown direct on 8.12, own seed, 13/row
Image below is mid July, garlic harvested and followed with golden beetroot, new celeriac, cabbage followed by French bean, broad beans at far end followed by swede and kale, hidden behind the parsnips which are on the large side. Dug bed on left, undug on right.
By the end of July, many changes have happened again. Golden beetroot are well established where the garlic was. Onions are now drying in the greenhouse and I have planted beetroot and endive where they were. Lettuce are almost finished and the French beans have grown enormous in no time; they were planted after the cabbage harvest.
These figures are after the final harvests on December 4th. First harvests were in May.
|Vegetable||Dug Beds kg||Undug Beds kg|
|Lettuce Leaves *||9.31||10.38|
|Beetroot (April Planting)||2.95||2.92|
|Onion Red Baron||3.79||3.84|
|Boldor (June Planted) **||8.43||8.33|
|Endive Leaves **||2.78||3.05|
|Kale, small leaves for salad **||0.76||0.82|
|Parsnip (One 5ft row!)||12.47||14.40|
|Beetroot (July Planted) **||2.68||1.7|
|FINAL TOTALS to December 2014||104.86||104.92|
* 22 plants on each bed, picked every week from May to July
** 2nd planting
As of mid-September, both beds look full and productive but the dug bed’s crops now look slightly stronger
As of mid-October, crops look quite similar and gaps are now appearing adter the leek and carrot harvests.
By early November, the only harvests to make are red beetroot, celeriac, swede and salad kale.
By 4th December, the last kale is harvested and its time to to dig the dug bed, back to top for 2015.